The article below was originally published on WebMonkey in 1998, but Lycos has moved WebMonkey to a wiki and hasn't moved all of the old articles ;^(
Note that it assumes that web content is made up of static pages. This is becoming less and less the case as interactivity and personalization is enabled. Industry players, such as the Internet Advertising Bureau, are now focusing on metrics for this new paradigm.
Don't Forget About Tracking
So you've created the ultimate Web site, and now you're sitting back watching your hit counter go wild. You may ask yourself, "I wonder how many pageviews my help page is getting?" or, "I wonder how many people are visiting my site?"
Unfortunately, when most people start building a Web site, they don't consider they someday might want to track its traffic. It takes enough time just to design the site and create the content. Outlining what information they want to track is just more work that already overworked staffs tend to let slide.
But when it comes down to it, we all quickly become bean counters on the Web. Once a site is up and running, we want to know how many people are looking at our pages and how many pages each of those people is looking at. That's usually when a lot of Web developers discover that had they spent more time thinking about setting up their site, they'd be able to track how it's being used much more easily.
If you're in this situation right now, you've come to the right place. And if you haven't made your site public yet, you're lucky - you still have time to think about reporting before your design is set in stone. Don't miss out on this chance!
What Information is Available?
Before you can decide what type of analysis you want to do, you need to know what information is available. Unfortunately, there's not much tracking data you can collect, and what you can get is unreliable. But don't despair - you can still gain useful knowledge from what does exist.
Your Web servers can record information about every request they get. The information available to you for each request includes:
- Date and time of the hit (we'll look more closely at what hits are later on)
- Name of the host
- Visitor's login name (if the user is authenticated)
- Web server's response code (see http://www.FreeSoft.org/CIE/RFC/2068/43.htm for definitions, or go to the source.
- Referer (see Toxic's article "
Who's Linking to You?") [no longer available on Webmonkey, but you can find it at the Wayback Machine]
- Visitor's user agent (see http://www.FreeSoft.org/CIE/RFC/2068/205.htm, or go to the source)
- Visitor's IP address
- Visitor's host (if the visitor's IP address can be translated)
- Bytes transferred
- Path of the file served
- Cookies sent by the visitor (see Marc's article,
"That's the Way the Cookie Crumbles"for an overview of cookies) [Marc's article is no longer available on WebMonkey, but you can find it at the Wayback Machine]
- Cookies sent by the Web server
As I mentioned before, the information you have available is inaccurate but not completely unreliable. Although this data is inexact, you can still use it to gain a better understanding of how people use your site.
To start things off, let's take the 10,000-foot view of everything available and then drop slowly toward the details. So, first let's talk about hits and pageviews. (If you didn't know already - there is a difference. A hit is any request for a file your server receives. That includes images, sound files, and anything else that may appear on a page. A pageview is a little more accurate because it counts a page as a whole - not all its parts.)
As you probably already know, it's quite easy to find out how many hits you're getting with a simple hit counter, but for more precise analysis, you're going to have to store the information about the hits you get. An easy way to do this is simply to save the information in your Web server log files and periodically load database tables with that data or to write the information directly to database tables.
(For those database-savvy readers, if you periodically load database tables using a 3GL and ODBC- or RDBMS-dependent APIs, you can use data-loading tools from the RDBMS vendor - such as Sybase's BCP - or you can use a third-party, data-loading product.)
If you load your data directly into a database, you will either need a Web server with the capability already implemented (such as Microsoft's IIS), or you will need the source code for the server. Another option is to use a third-party API, like Apache's DBILogger.
Once you do that, you can gather information about how many failed hits you're getting - just count the number of hits with a status code in the 400s. And if you're curious, you can drill down farther by grouping by each status code separately.
On the whole, though, counting hits isn't as informative as counting pageviews. And the results aren't comparable to those of other sites (
To count pageviews, you need to devise some method of differentiating hits that are pageviews from those that are not. Here are some of the factors we take into account when doing this at Wired Digital:
- Name of the file served
- Type of the file served (HTML, GIF, WAV, and so on)
- Web server's response code (for instance, we never count failed requests - those with a status code in the 400s)
- Visitor's host (we don't count pageviews generated by Wired employees)
Here at Wired Digital, we've put into place a standard stating that the file path determines where hits to a given file will be reported. For example, a pageview to http://www.webmonkey.com/webmonkey/98/13/index0a.html is counted as a pageview for Webmonkey, whereas a pageview to http://hotwired.lycos.com/synapse/98/12/index3a.html is counted as a pageview for Synapse (because Jon Katz is a Synapse columnist).
If this standard is in place at all levels of your site, you can summarize and drill down through your pageviews at will. Of course, there are some problems with this method. You may want to count a pageview in one section part of the time and in another section at other times. There are ways (that I won't go into now), however, to get around these problems. We've found over the years that this method works best - at least for us.
Looking Deeper Into Pageviews
Once you've cut your teeth on some programs designed to retrieve the types of information I've just explained, you should be able to use your knowledge to code programs to give you the following:
- Pageviews by time bucket You can look at how pageviews change every five minutes for a day. This will tell you when people are accessing your site. If you also split group pageviews by your visitors' root domains, you can determine whether people visit your site before work hours, during work, or after work.
- Pageviews by logged-in visitors vs. pageviews by visitors who haven't logged in What percentage of your pageviews come from logged-in visitors? This information can help you determine whether allowing people to log in is worthwhile. You can also get some indicat ion of how your site might perform if you required visitors to log in.
- Pageviews by referrer When your visitors come to one of your pages via a link or banner, where do they come from? This information can help you determine your visitors' interests (you'll know what other sites they visit). And if you advertise, this information can help you decide where to put your advertising dollars. It can also help you decide more intelligently which sites you want to partner with - if you're considering such an endeavor.
- Pageviews by visitor hardware platform, operating system, browser, and/or browser version What percentage of your pageviews come from visitors using Macs? Using PCs? From visitors using Netscape? Internet Explorer? It will take a bit of work to cull this information out of the user agent string, but it can be done. Oh, and since browsers are continually being created and updated, and therefore the number of possible values in the user agent string continues to grow larger, you'll have to keep up to date on whatever method you use to parse this information.
- Pageviews by visitors' host How many of your pageviews come from visitors using AOL? Earthlink?
How To Count Unique Visitors
Now let's talk about visitor information. Look at the bulleted paragraphs above and replace the word "pageviews" with the word "visitors." Interesting, huh? Unfortunately, counting visitors is more difficult than counting pageviews.
First off, let's get one thing out in the open: There is absolutely no way to count visitors reliably. Until Big Brother ties people to their computers and those computers scan their retinas or fingerprints to supply you with this information, you'll never be sure who's visiting your site.
Basically, there are three types of information you can utilize to track visitors: their IP addresses, their member names (if your site uses membership), and their cookies.
The most readily available piece of information is the visitor's IP address. To count visitors, you simply count the number of unique IP addresses in your logs. Unfortunately, easiest isn't always best. This method is the most inaccurate one available to you. Most people connecting to the Net get a different IP address every time they connect.
That's because ISPs and organizations like AOL assign addresses dynamically in order to use the limited block of IP addresses given to them more efficiently. When an AOL customer connects, AOL assigns them an IP address. And when they disconnect, AOL makes that IP address available to another customer.
For example, Sue connects via AOL at 8 a.m. and is given the IP address 22.214.171.124, visits your site, and disconnects. At 10 a.m., Bob connects via AOL and is assigned the same IP address. He visits your site and then disconnects. Later, as you're tallying the unique IP addresses in your logs, you'll unknowingly count Sue and Bob as one visitor.
This method becomes increasingly inaccurate if you're examining data over longer time periods. We only use this information in our calculations at Wired Digital as a last resort, and then only when we're looking at a single day's worth of data.
If you allow people to log in to your site through membership, you have another piece of information available to you. If you require people to log in, visitor tracking becomes much easier. And if you require people to enter their passwords each time they log in, you're in tracking heaven. As we all know, though, there's a downside to making people log in - namely that a lot of people don't like the process and won't come to your site if you require it.
If you do force people to log in, however, you can count the number of unique member names and easily determine how many people visit your site. If you don't force people to log in, but do give them the option to do so, you can count the number of unique member names; then, for those hits without member names attached, you can count the number of unique IP addresses instead.
Lastly, you can add cookies to your arsenal. Define a cookie that will have a unique value for every visitor. Let's call it a machine ID (I'll explain this later). If a person visits you without providing you with a machine ID (either because she hasn't visited your site before or because she's set her browser not to accept cookies), calculate a new value and send a cookie along with the page she requested.
So now you can count the number of unique machine IDs in your log. But there are still a couple of issues that we need to discuss. First, as I've already mentioned, many people turn off their cookies, so you can't rely on cookies alone to count your visitors. At Wired Digital, we use a combination of cookies, member names, and IP addresses to count visitors, with the caveat that, as I said earlier, we don't use IP addresses when counting more than a single day's traffic.
Second, the cookie specification allows browsers to delete old cookies. And even if this option wasn't specified, a user's hard disk can always fill up. Either way, the cookies you send to a visitor may be removed at some point. So it's possible that a person who visits your site at 8 a.m will no longer have your cookie when they return at 9 a.m.
Third, when your Web server sends a cookie to a visitor, it's stored on the visitor's machine - so if a person visits your site from home in the morning using her desktop machine and visits again from work using another PC, you'll log two different cookies. Which is why I've called the cookie a "machine ID": it's tied to the machine, not the visitor.
Which brings us to issue number four: Multiple people may use the same machine, in which case you'll see only one cookie for all of them.
Fifth, various proxy servers may handle cookies differently. It's possible that a given proxy server won't deliver cookies to the user's machine. Or it might not deliver the correct cookie to the user's machine (it might even deliver some other cookie from its cache). Or it might not send the user's cookie back to your Web server. Unfortunately, proxy servers are still young. There is no formal and complete standard for how they're supposed to work, and there's no certification service to ensure that they'll do what they're supposed to do.
So with all these issues to consider, here's what we do at Wired Digital:
- If we want to count visitors for one day, we count member names.
- For hits that don't have member names, we count cookies.
- For hits that have neither member names or cookies, we count IP addresses.
There's one more issue we need to discuss. Do you want to track the information you have over multiple days? Or is one day's worth enough? If one day's data will suffice, you can get away with simple programs that process your log files. If you prefer to process multiple days' information, however, you'll want to store it all in a database.